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Council Sustainability Committee Agenda Packet December 1, 2021 C OUNCIL S USTAINABILITY C OMMITTEE C ITY OF M OUNTAIN V IEW A GENDA NOTICE AND AGENDA SPECIAL MEETINGWEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 1, 2021 VIRTUAL MEETING WITH NO PHYSICAL MEETING LOCATION 6:30 P.M. This meeting will be conducted in accordance with Mountain View City Council Resolution No. 186183, in accordance with Assembly Bill 361. All members of the Council Sustainability Committee will participate in the meeting by video conference, with no physical meeting location. Members of the public wishing to comment on an item on the agenda may do so in the following ways: 1. Email comments to sustainability@mountainview.gov by 5:00 p.m. on the meeting date. Emails will be forwarded to the Council Sustainability Committee and City staff. Please identify the Agenda Item number in the subject line of your email. 2. Provide oral public comments in open session and/or during the meeting. Online: You may join the Zoom Webinar using this link: https://mountainview.zoom.us/j/89278103317 and entering Webinar ID: 892 7810 3317. You will be asked to enter an email address and a name. Your email address will not be disclosed to the public. feature in Zoom. Speakers will be notified of their turn shortly before they are called on to speak. https://mountainview.gov/raise_hand. By phone: Dial: 669-900-9128 and enter Webinar ID: 892 7810 3317. When the Chair announces the item on which you wish to speak, dial *9. Phone participants will be called on by the last two digits of their phone number. When the Chair calls your name to provide public comment, if you are participating via phone, please press *6 to unmute yourself. When called to speak, please limit your comments to the time allotted (up to three minutes, at the discretion of the Chair). Council Sustainability Committee Agenda December 1, 2021 Page 2 of 4 1. CALL TO ORDER 2. ROLL CALL Committee members Margaret Abe-Koga, Pat Showalter, and Chair Alison Hicks. 3. MINUTES APPROVAL Minutes for the September 16, 2019 meeting have been delivered to Committee members and copies posted on the City Hall bulletin board. If there are no corrections or additions, a motion is in order to approve these minutes. 4. ORAL COMMUNICATIONS FROM THE PUBLIC This portion of the meeting is reserved for persons wishing to address the Committee on any matter not on the agenda. Speakers are limited to three minutes. State law prohibits the Committee from acting on nonagenda items. 5. UNFINISHED BUSINESS None. 6. NEW BUSINESS 6.1 PANDEMIC TRAVEL PATTERNS AND POSTPANDEMIC OPPORTUNITIES Staff will present data on pandemic travel patterns and discuss opportunities to leverage these lessons postpandemic to achieve GHG reductions. 6.2 SEA LEVEL RISE PLANNING AND REGIONAL COLLABORATION EFFORTS including cooperation with local and regional agencies. 6.3 SUSTAINABILITY ACTION PLAN 4 STATUS UPDATE Staff will present a status update on Sustainability Action Plan 4 (SAP-4), including progress since the May 2021 update to the City Council and a preview of significant upcoming items. Council Sustainability Committee Agenda December 1, 2021 Page 3 of 4 6.4 CARBON-NEUTRAL TARGET DATE DISCUSSION Staff will discuss Carbon-Neutral by 2030 resolutions adopted by other cities and seek the Council Sustainability C direction on whether to return to the Committee with an assessment of the implications of adjusting Mountain , in accordance with the current Council-adopted resolution, to 2030. There is no staff memo for this item, which was referred to the CSC by the City Council at its November 9, 2021 meeting. 7. COMMITTEE/STAFF COMMENTS, QUESTIONS, COMMITTEE REPORTS No action will be taken on any questions raised by the Committee at this time. 8. ADJOURNMENT SA/2/MGR 620-12-01-21A Council Sustainability Committee Agenda December 1, 2021 Page 4 of 4 AGENDAS FOR BOARDS, COMMISSIONS, AND COMMITTEES The specific location of each meeting is noted on the notice and agenda for each meeting which is posted at least 72 hours in advance of the meeting. Special meetings may be called as necessary by the Committee Chair and noticed at least 24 hours in advance of the meeting. Questions and comments regarding the agenda may be directed to the Sustainability -903-6301. before each regular meeting. A copy can be mailed to you upon request. Staff reports are also available during each meeting. SPECIAL NOTICEReference: Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990 Anyone who is planning to attend a meeting who is visually or hearing-impaired or has any disability that needs special assistance should call the - 903-6301 48 hours in advance of the meeting to arrange for assistance. Upon request by a person with a disability, agendas and writings distributed during the meeting that are public records will be made available in the appropriate alternative format. The Board, Commission, or Committee may take action on any matter noticed herein in any manner deemed appropriate by the Board, Commission, or Committee. Their consideration of the matters noticed herein is not limited by the recommendations indicated herein. SPECIAL NOTICE Any writings or documents provided to a majority of the Council Sustainability Committee regarding any item on this agenda will be made available for at 500 Castro Street, during normal business hours and at the meeting location noted on the agenda during the meeting. ADDRESSING THE BOARD, COMMISSION, OR COMMITTEE Interested persons are entitled to speak on any item on the agenda and should make their interest known to the Chair. Anyone wishing to address the Board, Commission, or Committee on a nonagenda item may do so during the Oral Communications part of the agenda. Speakers are allowed to speak one time on any number of topics for up to three minutes. C OUNCIL E NVIRONMENTAL S USTAINABILITY C OMMITTEE C ITY OF M OUNTAIN V IEW M INUTES REGULAR MEETINGMONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 2019 PLAZA CONFERENCE ROOM AT CITY HALL500 CASTRO STREET 6:30 P.M. 1. CALL TO ORDER The meeting was called to order at 6:30 p.m. by Chair Abe-Koga. 2. ROLL CALL Present: Committee member Alison Hicks, and Chair Margaret Abe-Koga. Absent (arrived late): Committee member Ellen Kamei. 3. MINUTES APPROVAL Motion M/S Hicks/Abe-KogaCarried 2-0; Kamei absentTo approve the minutes of the April 1, 2019 meeting. 4. ORAL COMMUNICATIONS FROM THE PUBLIC James Kempf encouraged the City to look more closely at carbon sequestration, including partnering with farmers to sequester carbon. 5. UNFINISHED BUSINESS None. 6. NEW BUSINESS 6.1 SUSTAINABILITY ACTION PLAN 4 Environmental Sustainability Coordinator Steve Attinger presented a proposed Draft Sustainability Action Plan 4 for Fiscal Years 2019-20 through 2021-22, which included 28 overarching goals and 82 new actions the City could take to both meet its greenhouse gas reduction targets and achieve these overarching goals. Steve Attinger, Assistant City Manager/Chief Operating Council Environmental Sustainability Committee Minutes September 16, 2019 Page 2 of 2 Officer Audrey Ramberg, and Sustainability Analyst Erin Brewster responded Speaking from the floor in support and/or with recommendations: Serge Bonte Mohan Gurunathan Pat Showalter Mike Balma Bruce Naegel Mary Dateo Hala Alshahwany Jamie Minden Kiran Har The Committee discussed this item. 7. COMMITTEE/STAFF COMMENTS, QUESTIONS, COMMITTEE REPORTS There were no committee/staff comments, questions, or committee reports. 8. ADJOURNMENT The meeting was adjourned at 8:12 p.m. SA/2/MGR 620-09-16-19mn 6.1 MEMORANDUM Public Works Department DATE: December 1, 2021 TO: Council Sustainability Committee FROM: Ria Hutabarat Lo, Transportation Manager Damian Skinner, Assistant Public Works Director Dawn S. Cameron, Public Works Director SUBJECT: Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities RECOMMENDATION Review and provide input on information on pandemic travel patterns and postpandemic opportunities. BACKGROUND Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has produced massive changes in the ways that people work, their patterns of travel, and methods for accessing services and opportunities. The unprecedented nature of these changes provides fertile ground for a range of ideas about how life will be different in the postpandemic era. One question of interest is the degree to which remote work will continue, the difference that this might make on future commute patterns, and what strategies could be explored to realize ongoing improvements in traffic congestion and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this report is to present information regarding observed travel patterns and changed work configuration in the last 20 months and identify potential opportunities to leverage any benefits associated with pandemic conditions to achieve . To that end, staff has analyzed the journey to work, due to the oversized influence of commute travel on traffic congestion, GHG emissions and transportation infrastructure considerations. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 2 of 22 However, it should be noted that there are also considerable changes in other trip types associated with the pandemic. These changes include a reduction in local shopping trips; an increase in delivery trips; increased use of automated vehicles or personal delivery devices; reduced carpool, vanpool, taxi and ride-hail (e.g., Uber, Lyft) trips; and changes in school-based trips. ANALYSIS Vehicular Traffic Lightened During the Pandemic and Has Now Rebounded to 90% In early 2020, concerns about the spread of COVID-19 were accompanied by a shift to remote work arrangements for many Silicon Valley technology companies as well as changes in consumer behavior (such as reduced eating out, reduced transit ridership, and increased grocery shopping trips). These shifts were reflected in a slight downward trend in vehicular traffic and public transit ridership in early 2020. This trend became a more dramatic drop in March 2020, when the County of Santa Clara issued a Shelter-in-Place order to prevent severe public health outcomes. At that time, office-based employers shifted to work-from-home arrangements, schools shifted to asynchronous or online learning, and many service businesses paused operations. The resulting decrease in travel demand is reflected in bridge crossing vehicle volume data, which the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses as a proxy for Bay Area travel demand. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 3 of 22 120% 100% 95% 100% 91% 90% 87% 80% 94% 78% 77% 80% 87% 83% 77% 76% 74% 73% 60% 51% 40% 35% Bay Bridge Vehicle Volumes 20% Other State Bridge Vehicle Volumes 0% 99999000001111 11111222222222 -------------- lll rrr vv npnpnp uuu aaa oo aaa eee JJJ JJJ SSS NN MMM Figure 1: Vehicle Traffic Volumes Relative to January 2020, Bay Area Source: MTC Monthly Transportation Statistics, November 2021 After a drop of approximately 50% in March 2020, economic activity somewhat returned in summer 2020 accompanied by an increase in vehicular traffic on Bay Area bridges to approximately 75% of January 2020 levels. By August 2021, bridge traffic reached 95% of January 2020 levels as displayed in Figure 1. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 4 of 22 Local traffic data provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS) for the U.S. 101 freeway in Santa Clara County suggests that traffic volumes in the vicinity of Mountain View dropped to approximately 60% of typical levels (accounting for month-to-month seasonality). Since the initial drop, traffic volumes rebounded to about 80% by summer 2020 and are now at 96% (northbound) to 90% (southbound) of typical levels (see Figures 2 and 3). Figure 2: Vehicle Traffic Volumes Relative to 2019, U.S. 101 Northbound in Santa Clara County Source: Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS), November 2021 Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 5 of 22 Figure 3: Vehicle Traffic Volumes Relative to 2019, U.S. 101 Southbound in Santa Clara County Source: Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS), November 2021 Transit Ridership Dropped Dramatically and Has Slowly Rebounded to 20% to 50% Pandemic-related travel demand reductions were substantially more dramatic for public transit than for vehicular transportation. For example, while vehicular traffic on U.S. 101 in Santa Clara dropped by 40% and is now back at 90% of pre-COVID levels, transit ridership (using BART ridership as a proxy) dropped by about 95% and is still at only about 20% of pre-COVID levels (see Figure 4). Similar patterns of a deeper drop and much more gradual recovery have been observed for services operating in Santa Clara County, including VTA, Caltrain, and Mountain View Community Shuttle. Caltrain ridership dropped by 98% between February and April 2020 and has gradually rebounded to approximately 20% of pre-COVID rates (i.e., 80% below prepandemic levels). VTA ridership dropped by 75% between February and April 2020, and rebounded to approximately 50% of pre-COVID rates by October 2021. Mountain View Community Shuttle ridership dropped by 85% and has now rebounded to approximately 50% of pre-COVID rates. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 6 of 22 Given this substantial lag in recovery of transit ridership compared with vehicle traffic, staff anticipates that it could take years for transit ridership levels to return to prepandemic levels, while vehicle traffic levels are already at 90% to 95% of prepandemic levels. Caltrain and other agencies have implemented promotions to nudge former riders back to transit. 120% BART 100%100% VTA 100% Caltrain MVCS 80% 60% 52% 49% 40% 38% 36% 40% 35% 42% 34% 31% 31%38% 31% 28% 25%27% 25% 23% 22% 20% 19% 20% 20% 15% 18% 15% 14% 12%12% 12% 11% 14% 6% 11% 7% 6%5% 5%5% 0%4% 2% 1 Figure 4: Public Transit Ridership Relative to January 2020 Transit Hesitancy Is Reducing Vehicle Occupancy and Elevating Roadway Traffic Hesitancy to get back on transit is related to concerns regarding the spread of COVID-19, including variants and breakthrough cases after vaccination. This hesitancy affects transit ridership as well as other high-occupancy modes involving people outside a single household. These modes include corporate shuttles, vanpools, carpools, and shared ride- hail services. Regular carpooling and vanpooling is also more difficult when employees have different schedules throughout the week, with some days of remote work and some in-office work. 1 Sources: MTC Monthly Transportation Statistics 11/2021; VTA Ridership Data 11/2021; Caltrain Ridership Data 11/2021; Mountain View Community Shuttle Ridership Data 11/2021. 100% represents 388,922 average daily BART riders, 107,456 daily VTA riders, 64,806 daily Caltrain riders, and 781 daily Mountain View Community Shuttle riders in January 2020. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 7 of 22 Ongoing transit hesitancy has worrisome implications for traffic congestion in the Bay Area because typical transit occupancy levels are so much higher than that of motor vehicles. For example, while a typical vehicle carries 1.2 passengers (including the driver), a bus carries 60 passengers, and a train carries around 500 passengers. Ridership on Caltrain services prior to the pandemic represented an equivalent of four freeway lanes of capacity during peak hours, which means that if former riders are hesitant to get back to transit, some of those currently driving are new vehicle trips diverted away from 2 transit and not the return of former freeway travelers. Active Transportation Increased, and These New Habits Are Likely to Persist Somewhat While transit ridership dramatically decreased during the pandemic, participation in active transportation modes such as walking and cycling increased as community members sought local outdoor places to exercise, recreate, and social distance during shelter-in-place orders. In general, rates of walking and biking increased in residential and lower-density areas such as much of Mountain View, and decreased in higher density and more employment-oriented areas such as urban Central Business Districts and office parks. Recent research on the expected persistence of these changes suggest that 29% of U.S. residents expect to walk more frequently than they did in the prepandemic era, and 15% 3 of residents expect to bike more frequently than in the prepandemic era. The results, from a sample of more than 7,000 walkers and bikers, are shown in Figure 5. Among those interviewed, almost 45% of those who were not regular walkers before the pandemic indicated an intention to continue walking at a greater frequency during the postpandemic era. Additionally, 10% of those who were not regular cyclists expect to ride at a greater frequency postpandemic. Many of those who expect to ride at a greater experience and exposure to bike riding during the pandemic. 2 Caltrain Giphy on Modernization High Speed Traffic GIF by CaltrainFind & Share on GIPHY 3 Potential Stickiness of Pandemic- 118 (27) e2106499118; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106499118 Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 8 of 22 100% 5% 9% 10% 14% 15% 16% Much less 20% 80% 41% 25% Less / Somewhat less 60% About the same 85% More / Somewhat more 79% 72% 40% 64% 45% Much more 54% 20% 4% 14% 4% 4% 6% 4% 3%3%3% 0% WalkerFormerFormerCyclistFormerFormer NotRegularNotRegular RegularWalkerRegularCyclist WalkerCyclist 4 Figure 5: Expected Level of Participation in Active Transportation Postpandemic This shift toward active transportation represents an opportunity for cities like Mountain View to capitalize on new habits developed during the pandemic in order to encourage more active transportation in the postpandemic era. Efforts to encourage walking and biking are most suitable for first- and last-mile trips to or from transit as well as short trips within a walkable or bikeable range of up to about three miles. For example, the Castro StrEATS program, which was initiated to support the recovery of downtown businesses, has also helped community members to envision and experience a more walkable downtown environment and has encouraged short walking downtown business district and Transit Center area. Likewise, planned execution of as students return to school campuses is expected to boost walking and biking access to school through encouragement events and education efforts focused on building confidence, skills, and traffic safety knowledge among students. 4 of Pandemic-Induced Behavior Changes in the United e2106499118; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106499118 Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 9 of 22 Some Employment Sectors Have Returned to Work In the 20 months since March 2020, the pandemic has eased, and vaccines have been of 2,249 per day on January 5, 2021, are now around 160 per day, and 1.47 million (74% of all residents) have been fully vaccinated. In this context, most service jobs have returned to in-person work, and many office-based employers have started the process of returning employees to the office. For peak hour trips, which are the focus of congestion analyses, trip types that have rebounded include commute trips by essential workers and people working in health care, construction, education, and various service sectors. Additionally, school-related traffic has rebounded, along with commute trips for a small portion of professional workers doing office-based work. almost 50% of jobs in Santa Clara County are not eligible to be conducted remotely. In-person jobs (and the need to commute) are skewed toward lower-income households as well as Black and Latinx communities. For example, only 6% of employees in jobs with an annual income of less than $40,000 are eligible to work remotely compared to 76% of those in jobs with an annual income of more than $150,000. Likewise, only 33% of Black workers and 30% of Latinx workers are employed in jobs where they are eligible for remote work, 5 compared with 51% of White workers. Regardless of employment sector and remote work eligibility, differences in household size and access to technology can exacerbate these differences in participation in remote or in-person work by lower-income households as well as Black and Latinx communities. Most Tech Workers Have Not Yet Returned to the Office In Silicon Valley, have started the process of bringing some employees back to the office through a phased approach that is slated to conclude in early 2022 (see Table 1). For example, Google currently has a voluntary return to the office and has postponed the mandatory return to the office until January 10, 2022. For Google employees who return to the office, recent media reports and company blogs indicate that a hybrid work plan will allow for up to two days of remote work per week. Additionally, up to 20% of employees may be permitted to work fully remotely with a salary reduction to reflect cost-of-living differences and the in- person collaboration. For Intuit, hybrid work arrangements are likely to include up to 5 http://www.bayareaeconomy.org/report/remote-work-in-the- bay-area/ Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 10 of 22 two or three days of remote work, with the possibility of some employees opting for fully remote work. 6 Table 1: Return to Office Employer Current Planned Return Hybrid (Employees) Arrangement Date Work Plan Google/ Voluntary return January 10, 2022 Most employees work in Alphabet (or 30-day office 3 days per week; (25,000) notice) Up to 20% of employees work fully remote with reduced salary Intuit (2,600) Voluntary opt-in January 18, 2022 Employees work in office (<40% capacity) 2 to 3 days per week; 14% of employees prefer fully remote work El Camino Mostly essential N/A N/A Hospital (2,200) workers LinkedIn (2,000) Voluntary return No date Hybrid work plan may + Microsoft allow fully remote work (1,700) While there is a hypothesis that the pandemic might shift most office-based employees to remote work configurations and reduce the number of people working on-site, academic research, Silicon Valley leadership and unabated development demand in Mountain View suggest that there is likely to continue to be a strong role for in-person work and collaboration. The importance of in-person collaboration and chance encounters in the workplace was recently highlighted by Sundar Pichai, CEO of Google/Alphabet, as critical to the Academic research supports this notion and identifies agglomeration economies, social networks, and the culture of decentralized knowledge- sharing both within and between organizations as the key ingredient explaining the 7 For this reason, industry leaders and academic observers expect that in-person 6 Sources: Extending our voluntary return to office (blog.google); https://www.intuit.com/blog/intuitlife/our-workplace-of-the-future-strategy/; LinkedIn's hybrid approach: we trust each other 7 Saxenian, A. (1994). Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 11 of 22 technological innovation in the postpandemic era, thereby maintaining the importance of in-person workplaces alongside a shift to increased levels of remote work. Researchers at Stanford University also note the limitations of remote work tools such as videoconferencing for virtual collaboration. These limitations include negative psychological effects that have been observed in relation to Zoom fatigue, social isolation, and the pressures of work-life blending in a remote work setting. Along with collaborative opportunities, these issues of mental health and work-life boundaries are likely to prompt a return to the workplace for many who could otherwise conduct their work fully remotely. Return to Office Plans Will Likely Result in Worse than Prepandemic Traffic Preliminary information from several Silicon Valley technology companies suggest that 10% to 30% of employees have currently returned to the office. Based on the preliminary hybrid work plans listed in Table 1, initial postpandemic office-based work may reach 40% to 64% of prepandemic occupancy if most employees continue with remote work two days per week and some employees are permitted and choose to work fully remotely. An initial return to the office in early 2022 at 40% to 64% of office capacity would represent a 100% to 400% increase in travel demand relative to current pandemic rates for the companies involved. With current Bay Area vehicle traffic levels of approximately 90% of prepandemic levels (see Figure 1), a 100% to 400% increase in travel demand for corporate return to office plans represents substantially higher rates of vehicle traffic than prepandemic levels if current patterns of transit hesitancy (see Figure 4) persist. Planned Hot Desk Office Configurations Will Allow Workforce Expansion A likely scenario is that lower office occupancies associated with increased remote work will be counteracted by new office configurations that allow for more efficient use of space. Specifically, in response to increased requirements and demands for social distancing and remote work, technology companies have accelerated prepandemic trends toward hot desk office configurations. Hot desk office configurations have historically been implemented in workplaces with robust transportation demand management (TDM) programs such as Genentech in South San Francisco. Such configurations allow companies to make efficient use of office space when a sizeable portion of the workforce works remotely for some portion of the time. For example, for the past decade, Genentech has encouraged employees to work from home one day per week as an employee benefit associated with TDM strategies to meet Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 12 of 22 freeway on-ramp trip caps. Rather than leaving 20% of desks unutilized when employees work from home, Genentech offices have been designed with team pods, hot desks, and conference facilities. Given the shift toward more robust remote work policies, Google is planning next- generation COVID-friendly hot desk arrangements for their Mountain View offices. These arrangements allow for better social distancing through lower-density spacing of hot desks in team pods to more efficiently utilize facilities. With these new office configurations and remote work options, it is unlikely that postpandemic conditions will see underutilization of office spaces. Instead, companies are finding a way to utilize spaces more efficiently and allow for remote work with team members using facilities on a rotating basis. Should social distancing become less of a concern, such reconfigurations of offices into hot desks and team pods will support a return to prepandemic daily occupancy rates at an existing building spread out over a higher number of employees. In this sense, hybrid work models are a form of TDM in that they allow a higher number of employees to work at a building without increasing the number of daily trips to that building. From the perspective of the City, remote work conditions at Silicon Valley companies are, therefore, not expected to result in reduced travel demand relative to prepandemic levels. Instead, staff anticipates that the conditions will result in workforce expansion with a similar level of daily trips to prepandemic conditions. If transit hesitancy persists, higher vehicle trip rates and congestion are expected. This expectation is supported by the heavy development demand that continues unabated throughout the pandemic. Higher Rates of Remote Work will Likely Lead to Longer Commutes Induced travel demand is a phenomenon that has been studied and proven by various researchers, while controlling for population increase and demographic change. Induced travel demand is any increase in travel arising from improved travel conditions such 8 as shorter travel times. This phenomenon results in roadways filling up faster than would otherwise be expected after certain improvements are made. The extent to which the roadways fill up faster is determined by the elasticity of demand. 8 EPA Guidebook on Induced Travel Demand. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 13 of 22 Current and potential postpandemic travel improvements that would trigger (or have already triggered) induced demand effects include: Opportunities for remote work several days per week, which reduces the total weekly commute times for all modes; Reduced traffic congestion and therefore shorter commute times for motorists during the pandemic; Projects such as new auxiliary lanes on freeways and new turn lanes on local streets, which reduce travel delay for motorists; and Increased availability of free motor vehicle parking near work and other destinations. In response to these types of changes, research indicates that travelers change their behaviors in the immediate, near term, and long term. In the immediate term, travelers tend to: Select the most direct route rather than using back routes. In the near term, travelers tend to: Select more distant destinations for daily trips instead of living locally; Add new trips that would otherwise not be taken. In the long term, travelers tend to: Make locational investments such as moving to a house in a far-flung area instead of living in more dense, mixed-use, and transit-oriented areas; Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 14 of 22 Purchase a second or third car rather than living a car-light lifestyle; and Develop land or relocate their businesses to more remote areas. Given the duration of the pandemic, all of these effects have been observed in Silicon Valley, including long-term real estate investments in more suburban or rural areas such as South San José, Sacramento, and Tahoe, and increased vacancy rates for Silicon Valley 9 offices located near transit. As traffic volumes rebound in postpandemic era, a certain amount of reversal of these patterns can be expected. For example, increased commute travel and greater flexibility in work conditions is likely to be accompanied by peak spreadingwith commute patterns spread out throughout the day, and not just in the peak period. With the prospect of greater opportunity for more remote work in the postpandemic era, induced travel demand effects suggest that Mountain View employees will be more likely to live further away and commute further than in prepandemic times. Given the geography of California, these locations are likely to be less accessible to transit, thereby increasing the likelihood that employees drive alone to work (rather than walk, bike, or use transit) on the days that they do commute. Despite the potential reductions in travel associated with remote work, the long-term induced travel demand effects could potentially result in increased rates of single-occupancy vehicle (SOV) travel and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) due to the spreading of trip origins and increased rates of mega-commuting of 50 miles of more. In Silicon Valley, the phenomenon of mega-commuting includes the following behaviors, which have been anecdotally reported to City staff by tech sector and other professional workers: Vanpool partners who commute from far-flung locations and share the driving. This type of mega-commuting is more likely to occur when commuters have consistent daily travel patterns. SOV mega-commuters who drive alone several times a week from far-flung residential locations such as Brentwood or Sacramento; Airplane mega-commuters who commute by airplane between different regions such as Sacramento, Tahoe, San Diego, Greater Los Angeles, Oregon, Washington, or Colorado on a daily or weekly basis. 9 Source: https://www.pwc.com/us/en/industries/financial-services/research-institute/blog/move-to-the- suburbs-real-estate-market.html; https://www.mercurynews.com/2021/07/19/tahoe-real-estate-soars- even-as-pandemic-eases/; Silicon Valley commercial real estate sales high despite vacancies (sanjosespotlight.com) Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 15 of 22 Telecommuters who work almost entirely remotely, may be relocated in a different time zone such as Atlanta, New York, or Hawaii, and travel to Silicon Valley by car or plane every few weeks for face-to-face meetings. Train Carpool Vanpool Bus Motorbike Car SUV Airplane 10 Figure 8: Carbon Footprint of Different Modes of Transportation As illustrated in Figure 8, mega-commuting on a regular basis by car or airplane is associated with very high VMT and GHG emissions that have the potential to outweigh the environmental benefits of less frequent commutes. The more sprawling residential patterns associated with mega-commuting mean that both commuting and daily travel patterns are less likely to be accessible by transit and other sustainable modes of transportation. In addition to GHG emissions, mega-commuting patterns are also associated with urban sprawl and higher rates of land consumption, which is, in turn, associated with other environmental impacts, including increased stormwater runoff, water pollution, soil erosion, resource consumption, solid waste generation, habitat loss, loss of agricultural land, and vulnerability to extreme weather events such as wildfires and storms. 10 Source: https://ensia.com/voices/flight-shaming-flying-travel-carbon-co2-emissions-flyless-aviation- cars-trains/ Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 16 of 22 Summary: Local Traffic Relief Masks Higher SOV Rates and Potential Postpandemic Congestion According to Caltrans data, traffic volumes on freeways in Mountain View are currently about 5% to 10% lower than in prepandemic times. This moderate traffic relief, however, masks a number of more concerning patterns, including the following: There is a significant lag in the recovery of transit ridership relative to vehicle traffic volumes, which corresponds to lower average vehicle occupancy and high consumption of motor vehicle lanes. Most Silicon Valley companies plan to have a majority of employees return to the office and continue to demonstrate their expectation of face-to-face workplaces with unabated development activity and plans. The return to the office for employees from these companies will dramatically increase the number of people traveling into and through Mountain View. Companies have accelerated the shift toward hot desk-style office configurations, which means that more people can use the same amount of office space on a rotating basis. The current congestion relief and increased opportunity for remote work is associated with induced travel demand and induced real estate investment in lower- density and less transit-accessible areas, which may exacerbate GHG emissions and traffic congestion concerns when more employees return to the office. While there is still significant uncertainty about postpandemic travel patterns, the factors listed above indicate that remote work conditions are not expected to be a sustainable long-term solution for significantly reducing traffic congestion and VMT in Mountain View. DISCUSSION The City of Mountain View has a multi-pronged array of strategies for reducing SOV trips, reducing VMT, and encouraging people to shift to more sustainable modes of transportation. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 17 of 22 The City Land Use Plans Provide a Foundation for Transportation Transformation The City of outlines policies that limit street widening as a means of improving traffic flow (MOB 3.4 and 10.3) and that encourage a shift toward more sustainable modes of transportation. The General Plan and Precise Plans for North Bayshore, San Antonio, East Whisman, El Camino Real, Downtown, and Moffett areas also encourage a shift from suburban car-oriented travel patterns to more sustainable transportation patterns, while also protecting key assets such as habitat areas in the Shoreline Regional Park Community and historic character in downtown. These land use plans provide an important foundation for the private market to add thousands of new market-rate and affordable housing units in Mountain View. Increased housing supply helps reduce SOV trips and VMT by placing residences within a more walkable, bikeable, and transit-accessible proximity to jobs and services. For example, the North Bayshore Precise Plan lays out a plan for adding nearly 10,000 new housing units in proximity to North Bayshore jobs, with 20% being affordable housing units. The General Plan and Precise Plans integrate land use planning with multi-modal transportation investments to address development effects and encourage a shift away from SOV travel. For example, the Shoreline Boulevard bus lane project is being implemented to support development within the North Bayshore Precise Plan. Furthermore, the North Bayshore Precise Plan includes a gateway trip cap with requirements for measuring the number of cars going in and out of the district every six months to ensure that the district moves toward its ambitious goal of SOV trip reduction. Affordable Housing Programs Also Reduce SOV Trips and Average VMT In addition to long-range plans which facilitate development of new dwelling units, the City of Mountain View is implementing strategies to preserve the inventory of existing affordable housing and facilitate new affordable housing development, including housing for families, seniors, low-wage workers, and developmentally disabled adults. Low-income housing is particularly helpful for reducing SOV trips and VMT because lower-income populations have a higher elasticity demand, which means that they are more likely to respond to efforts to encourage use of modes other than driving alone. As shown in Figure 9, Mountain View's affordable housing programs are extensive and distributed across a wide area of the City. These programs include Rent Stabilization (rent control for units built before 1995); Subsidized Rental Housing (financial assistance to provide affordable housing), and Below-Market-Rate Housing (developers required to Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 18 of 22 Figure 9: Mountain View Affordable Housing Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 19 of 22 set aside 15% of all housing units for low- and moderate-income households). There are currently more than 16,101 affordable dwelling units in Mountain View, including 1,421 subsidized rental apartments and programs for previously unhoused populations, such as the project Homekey Program. Multi-Modal Transportation Infrastructure Investments Aim to Create Mode Shift The City of Mountain View also has key transportation policies and plans that are These policies emphasize sustainable transportation modes and provide a framework for shifting away from SOV trips toward walking, biking, and transit. Based on priorities outlined in AccessMV, the City is progressively investing in transportation projects that help to reduce SOV trips and create a path to more sustainable travel patterns. Projects currently undergoing feasibility analysis, design, or construction include: Bus lanes and protected bikeways along Shoreline Boulevard and Charleston Road; Grade separations at Rengstorff Avenue and Castro Street; and A pedestrian mall for the 100, 200, and 300 blocks of Castro Street. (This project draws upon lessons from the Castro StrEATS program, which was implemented to help facilitate business recovery during COVID while allowing community members to envision a more walkable downtown.) In addition to the above projects, the City has been awarded more than $30 million in grant funding within the last two years for key multi-modal transportation projects, including: Pedestrian and bicycle improvements along El Camino Real and Stierlin Road; A pedestrian/bicycle undercrossing at Bernardo Avenue; Extension of Stevens Creek Trail; and Expansion of the Mountain View Community Shuttle service. All of these investments will help to curb SOV trips by providing attractive alternatives to driving alone. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 20 of 22 City TDM Requirements Encourage Corporations to Do Their Part to Reduce SOV Trips As employees return to offices, TDM requirements, incentives, and encouragement programs can play a critical role in helping to shift people out of cars and back to transit and other sustainable modes. The City of Mountain View is a regional leader in TDM as exemplified by its cutting-edge TDM guidelines for the North Bayshore Area. These guidelines support precise plan goals and provide guidance for developers and corporations to help their employees walk, bike, and use transit instead of driving alone. Other precise plans, such as the East Whisman Precise Plan, also include TDM guidelines and requirements for new development. The Cityauthority to impose trip reduction requirements and TDM programs is limited to new development at the time of project approval or entitlement. The City has been consistently incorporating such requirements in the conditions of approval for both new commercial and residential developments above a minimum size threshold. After a project is approved, the City may enforce the trip reduction requirements included in the conditions of approval; however, the City cannot impose new trip reduction or TDM requirements. Therefore, efforts and incentives that encourage voluntary participation in TDM programs by existing commercial and residential development are essential for shifting people out of SOV travel. In order to further these TDM efforts, Council has authorized funding for a TDM Analyst, to be hired in early 2022. The TDM Analyst will help the City to establish a program for monitoring and achieving compliance with TDM requirements imposed on developments as a condition of approval. The TDM Analyst will also help to develop a Citywide TDM ordinance for Mountain View that will establish a more consistent approach for all new development in the City. The TDM Analyst will also help support the Transportation Section in Public Works with programs and initiatives for establishing voluntary TDM programs. Additional Opportunities to Reduce SOV Trips Postpandemic There are a number of short- and long-term strategies that the City is pursuing that can help encourage lower rates of SOV commuting in the postpandemic period as outlined in Table 2 below. Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 21 of 22 Table 2: City Activities for Suppressing Postpandemic Traffic STRATEGY STATUS Housing Continue housing affordability programs In progress/ongoing In progress compliance with RHNA goals Transportation Continue to advance active transportation projects In progress/ongoing Deliver multimodal improvements with repaving In progress/ongoing Execute Safe Routes to School programming to Reduced scope due to less increase active transportation participation grant funding Consider opportunities for traffic calming as part of Ongoing as part of development-related improvements development review process Pursue legislative strategies to understand and Can be considered as part of address impediments to innovative transit Council legislative priorities strategies, such as reversible bus lanes on Shoreline Boulevard and public transit partnerships for corporate shuttle services Included in scope of work Address quality-of-life issues such as green streets for Active Transportation to encourage living locally and sustainable Plan transportation TDM Strategies Implement TDM monitoring and enforcement for TDM Analyst starting in developments where TDM requirements have been 2022 imposed as part of conditions of approval Explore districtwide TDM strategies for downtown, Downtown Parking including transit incentives Strategy implementation; potential MTMA partnership Explore strategies to encourage voluntary TDM Analyst starting in participation in TDM programs for existing 2022; potential MTMA developments partnership Pandemic Travel Patterns and Postpandemic Opportunities December 1, 2021 Page 22 of 22 STRATEGY STATUS Explore congestion pricing in North Bayshore Area Feasibility being studied as part of North Bayshore Circulation Study Address parking pricing Downtown Parking Study implementation There are additional strategies to address postpandemic traffic that could be considered; however, these strategies would require additional staffing and/or budgetary resources. These strategies include the following: Augment outreach efforts by transit agencies to encourage increased transit ridership and carpool and vanpool ridership; Advocate for expanded transit services serving Mountain View from VTA; Develop strategies and funding options to expand the fare-free Community Shuttle services, including the possibility of merging with the fare-free MVgo Shuttle operated by the Mountain View Transportation Management Association (MTMA); Increase partnership with the MTMA to explore additional funding sources and broader delivery of TDM programs; and Develop or facilitate micro-mobility programs (e.g., e-scooter share). NEXT STEPS Staff will continue to monitor the effects of the pandemic on commute travel and other trips. Staff will also continue to implement the strategies in Table 2. Implementation of additional strategies or expanded efforts for existing strategies will require Council consideration as part of the Fiscal Year 2021-22 and Fiscal Year 2022-23 Strategic Roadmap Action Plan priority projects for commitment of staffing resources and funding. RHL-DS-DSC/EP/2/PWK 901-12-01-21M 6.2 MEMORANDUM Public Works Department DATE: December 1, 2021 TO: Council Sustainability Committee FROM: Raymond Wong, Senior Project Manager Lisa Au, Assistant Public Works Director Dawn S. Cameron, Public Works Director SUBJECT: Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts RECOMMENDATION Receive an update on sea level rise planning and regional collaboration efforts. BACKGROUND The City of Mountain View is susceptible to fluvial (river or creek) flooding from watershed runoff and coastal flooding from high tide and waves from the San Francisco Bay, especially at the low-lying areas north of U.S. 101 in the North Bayshore Area. Proper 100-year special flood hazard zone. Flood risk for the area north of U.S. 101 can be attributed to the following water bodies: San Francisco Bay from the north which introduces coastal flood risk; and Permanente Creek and Stevens Creek (including the City storm drain system which discharges to the two creeks) which introduces fluvial flood risk. The projected climate change and sea level rise in the San Francisco Bay will increase the San Francisco Bay water level and coastal flood risk to the northern part of the City. In 2012, in response to the existing flood risk in the North Bayshore Area and the anticipated sea level rise flood risk, the City prepared the Shoreline Regional Park Community Sea Level Rise Study (2012 Study). The study developed a Sea Level Rise Capital Improvement Program (CIP) to address the existing and the projected Year 2067 Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 2 of 9 coastal flood risk. The CIP consisted of 12 projects, and since that time, staff has been planning and implementing the CIP based on project priorities and coordination with other City and regional projects. In 2018, the California Ocean Protection Council updated the sea level rise estimates and provided planning resources for coastal communities to develop strategies to address sea level rise adaptation (Sea Level Rise Guidance 2018). Based on the updated sea level rise projections and estimates for exceedance probabilities, the low and high ends of the sea level rise scenarios for the City were updated as follows: Low Sea Level Rise. Twenty- High Sea Level Rise. Forty-two With the new sea level rise protections, staff updated the 2012 Study by reanalyzing sea level rise impacts to the City and updating the CIP project list. The updated 2021 Sea Level Rise CIP has 14 projects (Figure 1), with a planning-level program cost estimate of $121.8 million in year-of-construction dollars ($96.6 million in 2021 dollars) under the high sea level rise scenario. Staff presented the update to the City Council on June 22, 2021, and Council directed staff to use the high sea level rise risk level for the CIP design criteria. The June 22 Council report is provided as Attachment 1 and contains background information about sea level rise projections and the updated CIP. Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 3 of 9 Figure 1: 2021 Sea Level Rise Capital Improvement Program Projects Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 4 of 9 SEA LEVEL RISE STUDY UPDATENEXT STEPS In the 2021 Sea Level Rise Study Update, staff proposed a number of next steps to plan and implement sea level rise adaptation for the City. The following lists the next steps from Attachment 1 and a current progress update for each item. 1. Update the design criteria of the existing Sea Level Rise CIP projects that are currently in progress based on the 2070 High Sea Level Rise planning scenarios, where feasible. Based on the 2012 Study, staff has been implementing sea level rise CIP projects. The status of each project is summarized in Attachment 1, Table 2. Updates since the June 2021 report, related to applying the high sea level rise scenario to the projects, are provided below: Project 2, Coast-Casey North Levee Improvement As a part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, a draft design for Coast- Casey North Levee Improvement is being developed by Ducks Unlimited, a project partner with the California State Coastal Conservancy (CSCC) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS). Staff will review the proposed project design to assess if it meets the updated sea level rise design criteria and update the design criteria as needed. Project 3, North Landfill Erosion Protection This project will use the habitat transition zone that will be established along Pond A2W and Pond A1, as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, as a base for the City to continue building up the levee north of the landfill for sea level rise protection. Staff has begun working on the North Landfill Erosion Protection project and will use the updated sea level rise design criteria. Project 6, Lower Stevens Creek Levee Improvements The draft alternative analysis and preliminary design at the 30% level is completed based on the design criteria from the 2012 study. With the updated sea level rise design criteria, the levee will require additional improvements to meet both the 1 freeboard requirements, and stability and seepage design criteria. Staff is developing an approach to update the alternative analysis and preliminary design, 1 Freeboard is the distance between the normal water level and the top of a structure or mass that rises out of the water, such as a dam or levee. Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 5 of 9 which will form the basis for environmental permitting, coordination with other agencies, and engineering design for the project. Project 9, Sailing Lake Access Road Improvement Construction activities for this project started in November 2021. This project focuses on improving the Sailing Lake Access Road located between Sailing Lake and the Coast-Casey Forebay. The project will improve the safety and reliability of the Sailing Lake, provide reliable operations and maintenance access, and provide access and fortify the road in support of the anticipated soil transport for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. During the design phase, City staff learned that the road is actually a dam, due to its location between the two bodies of water with varying water service elevations, and that the dam falls under the regulatory jurisdiction of the California Division of Safety of Dams. Since the dam is not hydraulically connected to the San Francisco Bay, the updated sea level rise design criteria do not have a direct impact to the project design criteria. Project 10, Sailing Lake Intake Pump Station Modification This project is located next to Pond A1 and is currently on hold as the City is working with the CSCC to first implement the South Bay Salt Pond Project at Pond A2W. The project is anticipated to restart in 2022. The alternative analysis and engineering design will be based on the updated sea level rise design criteria. Project 12, Sea Level Rise Assessment The project updates the sea level rise assessment presented in Attachment 1. Staff is currently preparing a technical memorandum to document the sea level rise projection estimates, flood risk vulnerability, proposed improvements, implementation plan, detail cost estimate, and budget proposal for each sea level rise CIP project. 2. For pending and upcoming Sea Level Rise CIP projects, prepare feasibility analysis and develop performance-based criteria to prioritize the projects and develop an implementation plan and schedule. Staff is developing an implementation approach and schedule for the pending projects listed in Attachment 1, Table 2, and new Projects 11 to 14 recommended in the 2021 Sea Level Rise Study Update. Staff will conduct additional analyses of these projects to develop scopes of work and refined cost estimates. Depending on the Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 6 of 9 timing needs of each project, selected projects will be added for funding CIP budget preparation. 3. Assess potential changes in long-term groundwater impacts due to sea level rise, especially the need to revisit its potential effects to the closed landfill operation at Shoreline at Mountain View. As part of the operation and South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, there have been studies on the City groundwater system in the North Bayshore Area. These studies have provided analyses and information to quantify the existing groundwater condition. Staff is currently evaluating the need to develop new analyses and studies to assess potential groundwater impacts due to sea level rise, either as a part of Project 12, Sea Level Rise Assessment and Monitoring, or as a separate project. 4. Develop recommendations to update the City policy on sea level rise adaptation. As part of Project 12, Sea Level Rise Assessment and Monitoring, staff will develop a technical framework to form the basis to recommend updating City policies to take sea level rise adaptation into consideration by making adjustments on how the City manages flood risk, infrastructure operations, and land use planning. The Policy recommendations may affect the City review of proposed developments in the North Bayshore Area and Shoreline at Mountain View management. 5. Continue to participate and collaborate on regional planning efforts and projects. Staff has been and will continue to participate and collaborate on regional planning efforts and projects. Additional information is provided in the Regional Cooperation section below. 6. Identify additional funding sources for Sea Level Rise CIP implementation. Staff has been actively identifying and seeking external funding opportunities for sea level rise project implementation and will collaborate and coordinate with the to assist with these efforts. Potential external funding opportunities range from regional grant programs such as Measure AA, Federal grant programs such as FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program, and cost sharing in regional collaboration efforts such as the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. In addition, staff is working with the Valley Water to cost-share the Coast-Casey North Levee Improvement, as part of the coordination for the Pond A1 component of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. Based on input from the City Council Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 7 of 9 in June 2021, staff will also consider funding sources and collaboration with businesses and new developments in the City, especially in the North Bayshore Area. 7. Monitor sea level rise impacts to the City and update the Sea Level Rise CIP in five years. This objective is being implemented as a part of Project 12, Sea Level Rise Assessment and Monitoring, to provide monitoring. Staff started the preparation this past summer, completed a survey, and established monitoring points along the existing shoreline levees to monitor levee elevations and long-term subsidence. In addition, staff is setting up water elevation monitoring at the Mitigation Channel this winter to monitor water elevation changes and the hydrologic connection between Mitigation Channel and Pond A2W. Staff will continue to develop a plan to monitor sea level rise impacts to the City. REGIONAL COOPERATION As summarized in the Regional Planning Efforts section of Attachment 1, staff has been coordinating closely with members of other agencies and working on regional efforts that In addition to participating in regional planning efforts such as the San Francisco Bay Regional Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group (CHARG), staff has been working with CSCC, USFWS, and Ducks Unlimited on Phase II of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. The project will restore Pond A1 and Pond A2W to tidal marshes and reestablish tidal flow connection with South San Francisco Bay by breaching segments of outboard levees. The proposed gently sloped Habitat Transition Zone will reduce erosion risk along the City shoreline, which is a vulnerability under anticipated sea level rise conditions. Listed below is the current status of the Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Soil Import Permit and LicenseThe City issued an excavation permit and license agreement in July 2021 to Ducks Unlimited for soil import to the USFWS property Pond A2W for Habitat Transition Zone construction. Typically, this permit and license would have been issued after the project itself is fully approved, including the design plans and agreements, with all regulatory agency permits. However, the City issued the permit and license in advance of these project milestones to assist in keeping the project moving forward. Issuing the excavation permit and license required extensive coordination with Ducks Unlimited, park operations in Shoreline at Mountain View, other development projects in North Bayshore, and Traffic Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 8 of 9 Engineering to prepare for and accommodate the large volume of soil import truck traffic that will impact local traffic and park users. Project AgreementsStaff is working collaboratively with CSCC and USFWS to prepare agreements for the full Pond A2W project. The terms of a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) and a Habitat Easement Deed and Habitat Maintenance Agreement (Habitat Agreement) are scheduled for City Council consideration and approval at the December 14, 2021 Council meeting, pending concurrence from USFWS. The MOA stipulates the individual project responsibilities for the City and the USFWS. The Habitat Agreement allows the USFWS to construct part of the Habitat Transition Zone on City property. Design PlansThe Ducks Unlimited design team is currently working to finalize the design plans for Pond A2W. To help move the project forward, City staff proposed that the City, pending Council approval, design and construct additional erosion protection along the City shoreline levee at Pond A2W to meet sea level rise (described under Project 3 previously) and improve the Bay Trail segment infrastructure. CSCC plans to cost-share some of the improvement costs and will execute a cost-share agreement with the City. In addition to the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, staff has also been coordinating with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Valley Water, the City of Palo Alto, and other agencies on the South San Francisco Bay Shoreline Project (Shoreline Project) at the Palo Alto Flood Basin. Led by USACE, the project team is currently working on environmental clearance and studying the feasibility of various options. The option chosen ; thus, close coordination is warranted. Staff is also engaging with neighboring and regional agencies, such as Valley Water, City of Sunnyvale, NASA Ames Research Center, City of Palo Alto, and San Francisquito Creek Joint Power Authority, to develop and coordinate sea level rise adaptation plans and solutions that are consistent across the region and to identify opportunities to leverage funding and collaboration opportunities. SUMMARY Due to climate change and the threats from sea level rise, the City of Mountain View has been in the forefront of planning and implementing projects to prepare the City for these changes. These projects are of interest to many stakeholders and have a range of potential impacts in terms of the environment, wildlife, Shoreline at Mountain View, businesses, Sea Level Rise Planning and Regional Collaboration Efforts December 1, 2021 Page 9 of 9 residents, park and trail users, and the closed landfill. The proposed projects and plans are carefully analyzed to mitigate sea level rise with the needs of the stakeholders. Due to the size and technical issues associated with the projects, staff has engaged stakeholders and collaborated with neighboring agencies and regulatory agencies in planning the project scopes and timing. Staff continues to be involved in regional planning efforts to seek collaboration, coordinate projects, and identify funding sources such as grants and cost-sharing opportunities. RW-LA-DSC/SA/2/MGR 620-12-01-21M Attachment: 1. Council Report, June 22, 2021, 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 cc: CSD, F/c (21-54) DATE: June 22, 2021 CATEGORY: New Business DEPT.: Public Works TITLE: 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 RECOMMENDATION 1. planning, Capital Improvement Program, and funding efforts. 2. Direct staff to proceed with the next steps presented in this Council report. BACKGROUND The City of Mountain View lies on the alluvial plain of Santa Clara Valley with the ground surface descending from the hills south of the City to the San Francisco Bay (Bay). The area north of U.S. 101, including the North Bayshore Area, is a low-lying area and is subject to flooding due to stormwater runoff and high tides and is, therefore, sensitive to sea level rise impacts (Figure 1). Even without sea level rise, some properties in the area are within the Federal Emergency Management -year special flood hazard zone and subject to special construction and insurance requirements. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 2 of 17 Figure 1: North Bayshore Area Map 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 3 of 17 North Bayshore AreaExisting Flood Risk Flood risk for the area north of U.S. 101 is presented from three water bodies: the Bay from the north, Permanente Creek from the west, and Stevens Creek from the east. Each is discussed briefly below. San Francisco Bay North of Shoreline at Mountain View Regional Park, the City is bounded by three ponds that were constructed for salt production. One pond (Charleston Slough) was purchased by the City for wetland restoration. The other two ponds (Pond A1 and Pond A2W) are owned by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and are part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Salt Pond Project) that is being managed by the California State Coastal Conservancy. Limited coastal flood and sea level rise protection are provided by the levees that surround these ponds, which are not constructed to the standards required for certification by FEMA. The outer (Bay-side) levees will be breached as part of the Salt Pond Project, increasing Salt Pond Project will also bolster the levees along Ponds A1 and A2W with installation of a gently sloped The Habitat Transition Zone will provide habitat for marsh wildlife as well as wave energy attenuation that will protect the levees. Charleston Slough lies between Pond A1 and the Palo Alto Flood Basin (PAFB) and is protected from the Bay by an outboard levee, with tide gates regulating the flow of Bay water to the slough. The City has the following three management objectives at Charleston Slough: 1. Tidal Marsh Restoration: When the City acquired Charleston Slough from the Leslie Salt Company in 1980, the City inherited a mitigation requirement from the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC) to restore 53 acres of tidal marsh within the parcel. The restoration effort has been challenging, and the City is working with BCDC on the effort. 2. Water Supply for the Sailing Lake: The Sailing Lake intake pump station, located at the southern limit of the slough, provides water supply to the Sailing Lake to maintain the lake water quality. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 4 of 17 3. Flood Management: The levees along the southern edge of Charleston Slough and along the western edge of Charleston Slough are low and, therefore, provide limited protection. The tide gates and levees around Charleston Slough provide some level of flood protection but are not sufficient under anticipated sea level rise conditions. The existing floodplain in North Bayshore is connected to the floodplain of the City of Palo Alto and the PAFB. Therefore, any coastal flood risk management measures will need to connect and be coordinated with improvements along PAFB in order to provide continuous protection along the shared shoreline between the two cities. Permanente Creek The Permanente Creek levees are not accredited by FEMA, and some areas within North Bayshore are subject to flooding from Permanente Creek. In recent years, (formerly Santa Clara Valley Water District) Permanente Creek Flood Protection Project improved sections of floodwalls and levees along Permanente Creek between U.S. 101 and Shoreline at Mountain View, but additional levee improvements are needed for anticipated sea level rise conditions. Stevens Creek Levees exist on both sides of Stevens Creek from U.S. 101 to Crittenden Lane, protecting Mountain View to the west and Moffett Field/Sunnyvale to the east. These levees were accredited by FEMA as providing protection from the 100-year flood event under existing conditions. Additional improvements are needed for the levees north of Crittenden Lane that were not accredited by FEMA to protect against existing and anticipated sea level rise conditions. 2012 Sea Level Rise Study In 2012, in response to the existing flood risk for the North Bayshore Area and the anticipated sea level rise risk, the City developed the Shoreline Regional Park Community Sea Level Rise Study Feasibility report and Capital Improvement Program report (2012 Study). The 2012 Study proposed a sea level rise planning horizon of Year 2067, projected the future water surface elevations at the Bay with both high and low sea level rise projections under a 100-year event, estimated the coastal flood vulnerabilities in North Bayshore, and developed a Sea Level Rise Capital Improvement Program (CIP) to address the existing and the projected Year 2067 coastal flood risk. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 5 of 17 Recognizing that there is some uncertainty regarding how much the sea level will rise, the 2012 Study adopted the following two scenarios to bracket the low and high ends of the range. Low Sea Level Rise. Eight inches of sea level rise between 2000 and 2067 (1% (NAVD)). High Sea Level Rise. Thirty-one inches of sea level rise between 2000 and 2067 (1% NAVD). The 2012 Study recommended, and Council approved, project implementation based on -Sea Level Rise CIP projects will be designed to provide protection from the Low projection (8 of sea level rise) with simple adaptability to meet the High scenario. For instance, levees would be constructed with a wider base that can accommodate a future increase in height. Each scenario is shown diagrammatically in Figure 2. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 6 of 17 Figure 2: Sea Level Planning Scenarios 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 7 of 17 The Sea Level Rise CIP includes 12 projects to address impacts from sea level rise, primarily improvements to levees and pump stations (see Table 1). The 2012 estimate value of the 12 Sea Level Rise projects was $45.7 million. Table 1: Sea Level Rise CIP Projects from 2012 Study r e b m u N t c e j o r P Low Plus Sea Level y d Drainage Rise Scenario u t S Estimated Cost 2 1 ($ in millions in 2012 0 2Coastal FloodingCoastal ErosionFluvial FloodingInfrastructure ReliabilityInterior Sea Level Rise Planning Project value) 1 Charleston Slough and PAFB Levee X $15.53 Improvement 2 Coast-Casey North Levee X X $3.54 Improvement 3 North Landfill Erosion Protection X $9.61 4 Permanente Creek Levee and X $5.53 Floodwall Improvements 5 Golf Course Facilities High Ground X $3.63 Augmentation 6 Lower Stevens Creek Levee X X X $1.49 Improvements 7 Coast-Casey Pump Station X $2.32 Improvement 8 Lower Permanente Creek Storm Drain X $2.61 Improvements 9 Sailing Lake Access Road X $0.17 Improvement 10 Sailing Lake Intake Pump Station X $0.69 Modification 11 Charleston Slough Tide Gate X X $0.06 Improvement 12 Sea Level Rise Assessment X $0.50 TOTAL PLANNING LEVEL COST ESTIMATE $45.67 The North Bayshore Precise Plan incorporated the sea level rise considerations from the 2012 Study into land use planning design guidelines. It includes levee design, storm drainage improvements, and the minimum finished floor elevation in the low sea level rise inundation zone to account for sea level rise. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 8 of 17 Regional Planning Efforts Staff has been coordinating closely with members of other agencies working on regional Phase II of the Salt Pond Project will restore Pond A1 and Pond A2W to tidal marshes and reestablish tidal flow connection with South San Francisco Bay by breaching segments of outboard levees. The proposed gently sloped Habitat Transition Zone will reduce erosion risk along the City shoreline, which is a vulnerability under anticipated sea level rise conditions. The design of the improvements to Pond A2W is 90% complete, and staff is working with the Salt Pond project team to complete design, project agreements, and logistics of hauling a significant amount of soil for construction of the Habitat Transition Zone. Construction is scheduled to start in summer 2021, with material hauling through Shoreline at Mountain View to stockpile soil in Pond A2W. The final design and the project agreements are anticipated to be complete before the end of 2021, which will be followed by full construction work at Pond A2W. Staff has also been coordinating with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Valley Water, the City of Palo Alto, and other agencies on the South San Francisco Bay Shoreline Project (Shoreline Project) at the PAFB. Led by USACE, the project team is currently working on environmental clearance and studying the feasibility area, so close coordination is warranted. Sea Level Rise CIP projects, and how they relate to the Salt Pond Project and Shoreline Project. Table 2: 2012 Sea Level Rise CIP Project Status Project Status Projects that are City-led and independent of Salt Pond Project and Shoreline Project 4 Permanente Creek Levee and Floodwall Pending, future project. Improvements 5 Golf Course Facilities High Ground Pending, future project. Augmentation 6 Lower Stevens Creek Levee Improvements In design, estimated construction start in 2024. 8 Lower Permanente Creek Storm Drain Pending, future project. Improvements 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 9 of 17 Project Status 9 Sailing Lake Access Road Improvement Design is completed. Construction scheduled to start in fall 2021 and complete early 2022. 12 Sea Level Rise Assessment In progress. Projects coordinated with Salt Pond Project 2 Coast-Casey North Levee Improvement In design, estimated construction start with Pond A1. 3 North Landfill Erosion Protection In analysis, coordinating with Salt Pond team on project timing and phasing. 10 Sailing Lake Intake Pump Station In design, estimated construction Modification to start with Project 2Coast- Casey Levee Improvement. Projects to be coordinated with Shoreline Project 1 Charleston Slough and PAFB Levee Pending, project need and project Improvement scope depend on PAFB improvement plan. 7 Coast-Casey Pump Station Improvement Pending, project scope depends on PAFB improvement plan 11 Charleston Slough Tide Gate Improvement Tide gate repair proceed in Fiscal Year 2021-22, long-term improvements depend on PAFB improvement plan and Charleston Slough mitigation project. ANALYSIS Since 2012, projections for sea level rise have been updated and regional planning efforts have progressed. Updated Sea Level Rise Scenarios State of California Sea- Level Rise Guidance 2018 Update (OPC 2018 Guidance) provides new estimates and planning resources for coastal communities to develop strategies to address sea level rise adaptation. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 10 of 17 The OPC 2018 Guidance projected a 66% probability that the sea level rise in Year 2070 will be at or below 23 and considered this to be a low risk aversion scenario. It also projected a 0.5% probability that the sea level rise in 2070 will be at or above 42 and considered this to be a medium-to-high risk aversion scenario. The increased sea level rise projection is a reflection of the increasing rate of ice loss from Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets, improved scientific understanding and modeling of sea level rise, and change in sea level rise with consideration of different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Based on the updated sea level rise projections and their estimated exceedance probabilities, the low and high ends of the sea level rise scenarios are updated as follows: Low Sea Level Rise. Twenty-three inches of sea level rise between 2000 and 2070 (1% sti 2012 Study: Eight inches of sea level rise between 2000 and 2067 (1% still water level High Sea Level Rise. Forty-two inches of sea level rise between 2000 and 2070 (1% NAVD). 2012 Study: Thirty-one inches of sea level rise between 2000 and 2067 (1% still NAVD). With the latest projections, the planning year has been updated from 2067 to 2070, which equates to an approximately 50-year planning horizon and is in line with the sea level rise projection time steps presented in the OPC 2018 Guidance. Updated Sea Level Rise Study 2019 Storm Drain Master Plan Study by reanalyzing sea level rise impacts to the City and updating the CIP project list. In this sea level rise study update, it is assumed the Salt Pond Project will proceed as planned, but the analysis did not include implementation of the regional Shoreline Project (unless noted) due to the uncertainties related to that project scope, timing, and funding. The sea level rise study update mapped the 100-year coastal floodplain under existing conditions and the two projected sea level rise scenarios (Figure 3). Based on this new 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 11 of 17 analysis, the scope and cost estimate of each project in the 2012 Study are updated under two scenarios: Low-Plus Sea Level Rise Scenario: Improvements to provide 100-year flood protection with 23 of sea level rise by Year 2070, but with a wider levee base sized for the high sea level rise scenario so additional fill can be more easily added at a later time. High Sea Level Rise Scenario: Improvements to provide 100-year flood protection with 42 of sea level rise by Year 2070. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 12 of 17 Figure 3: Year 2070 Projected Sea Level Rise Inundation Map 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 13 of 17 The updated 2021 Sea Level Rise CIP projects are shown in Figure 4 and Table 3. In general, the updated Sea Level Rise CIP has a similar list of projects, but the scope of work has increased for most projects due to the higher sea level rise projections and design elevations. Construction cost estimates have increased accordingly. Two new projects have been added, and additional modifications to the scopes of some projects are made, as described below. Project 11: Charleston Slough Tide Gate Improvement is updated, and the scope of work will be expanded to include the mitigation requirements to meet the BCDC tidal marsh vegetation requirements in Charleston Slough. Project 11 will be Charleston Slough Mitigation Project Project 12: Sea Level Rise Assessment and Monitoring is updated to include an important element to monitor sea level rise impacts to the North Bayshore Area and City infrastructure and will develop a series of performance-based criteria to plan and schedule the implementation of specific Sea Level Rise CIP projects. A new Project 13: Crittenden Pump Station Improvement is added. Based on recommendations from the 2019 Storm Drain Master Plan, this project will decommission the Charleston Pump Station and route stormwater flow from the Charleston Detention Basin to Crittenden Pump Station. This project will improve the interior drainage system and provide a single discharge to Stevens Creek. A new Project 14: As-needed Storm Drain Improvements is added. This project provides as-needed interior drainage improvements, such as backflow prevention at the creek outfalls to address potential sea level rise impacts. The updated 2021 Sea Level Rise CIP planning level program cost estimate in 2021 dollars is as follows: Low-Plus Sea Level Rise Scenario = $86.7 million High Sea Level Rise Scenario = $96.6 million 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 14 of 17 Figure 4: 2021 Sea Level Rise Capital Improvement Program Projects 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 15 of 17 Sea Level Rise scenario, with 42 of sea level rise by Year 2070 for the following reasons: Considering that this is a regional challenge, using design parameters that are consistent with other local projects is recommended. Both the Salt Pond Project and Shoreline Project use this scenario for project planning and design. The California 2020- (42) of sea level rise by 2050. The sea level rise projection has been trending up with each revision. Research in this field will continue, and staff does not anticipate that estimates will be reduced. Table 3 provides the updated Sea Level Rise CIP projects with planning level cost estimates for the High Sea Level Rise Scenario. Also provided are estimated time frames for project implementation. Table 3: Updated Sea Level Rise CIP Project Budget Timeline Estimated Cost ($ in millions)* Project Total 5 Year 10 Year 10+ Year 1 Charleston Slough and PAFB Levee Improvement $30.98 $43.7 2 Coast-Casey North Levee Improvement $6.93 $4.9 $2.5 3 North Landfill Erosion Protection $4.91 $2.9 $2.3 4 Permanente Creek Levee and Floodwall Improvements $7.35 $10.4 5 Golf Course Facilities High Ground Augmentation $4.05 $5.7 6 Lower Stevens Creek Levee Improvements $9.01 $7.2 $2.1 7 Coast-Casey Pump Station Improvement $6.39 $1.3 $6.1 8 Lower Permanente Creek Storm Drain Improvements $6.72 $9.5 9 Sailing Lake Access Road Improvement $2.68 $2.7 10 Sailing Lake Intake Pump Station Modification $2.40 $0.5 $2.3 11 Charleston Slough Restoration $4.22 $3.4 $1.0 12 Sea Level Rise Assessment and Monitoring $0.50 $0.6 13 Crittenden Pump Station Improvement $7.30 $1.5 $6.9 14 As-needed Storm Drain Improvements $3.17 $4.5 COST ESTIMATE AT EACH PLANNING TIME STEP - $24.3 $23.8 $73.7 TOTAL COST ESTIMATE IN PRESENT VALUE $96.61 $24.3 $20.1 $52.3 _____________________ * The Total and 5-Year Estimated Costs are based on present value. The 10-Year and 10+ Year Estimated Costs are based on 2026 and 2031 future value, respectively, using a 3.5% annual rate. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 16 of 17 Staff will continue to cooperate with other agencies that are studying or implementing projects associated with sea level rise to ensure common analysis and develop cost- effective solutions for the City and other agencies. NEXT STEPS Staff proposes the following next steps for sea level rise planning for the City: Update the design criteria of the existing Sea Level Rise CIP projects that are currently in progress based on the 2070 High Sea Level Rise planning scenarios, where feasible. For the pending and upcoming Sea Level Rise CIP projects, prepare feasibility analysis and develop performance-based criteria to prioritize the projects and develop an implementation plan and schedule. Assess potential changes in long-term groundwater impacts due to sea level rise, especially the need to revisit its potential effects to the closed landfill operation at Shoreline at Mountain View. Develop recommendations to update the City policy on sea level rise adaptation. Continue to participate and collaborate on regional planning efforts and projects. Identify additional funding sources for Sea Level Rise CIP implementation. Monitor sea level rise impacts to the City and update the Sea Level Rise CIP in five years. FISCAL IMPACT This study does not have an immediate financial impact. However, it is anticipated that over the ensuing years, it may be necessary to issue long-term debt to fund a number of significant capital projects. Individual projects are CIP. The recommended updated list of Sea Level Rise CIP projects is estimated to cost $121.8 million in year-of-construction dollars. Of this amount, $11 million is currently funded in the CIP. Although staff will continue to seek outside funding sources and partnering opportunities, it is anticipated that the Shoreline Regional Park Community Fund will be the primary source for the remaining $110.8 million required to complete the projects. 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update, Project 21-54 June 22, 2021 Page 17 of 17 CONCLUSION The 2021 Shoreline Sea Level Rise Study Update provides a framework to plan the projects required to manage the flood risk to the City due to projected sea level rise. Under the High Sea Level Rise scenario, the overall planning level program cost is estimated at $96.6 million in present value ($121.8 million in year of construction dollars). While there are opportunities to reduce the City share via collaboration with regional projects, cost-sharing, and grant funding, there are uncertainties on these funding sources. There are also uncertainties associated with sea level rise planning, including the projection and timing of sea level rise, scope, funding, and timing of regional projects that Coordination with other agencies is essential because the coastal floodplain in North Bayshore is connected across jurisdictional boundaries. Staff will continue to implement projects that are under way, prioritize and recommend projects for funding as appropriate, and continue to seek outside funding sources and partnering opportunities. ALTERNATIVES 1. Direct staff to modify this report. 2. Provide other direction. PUBLIC NOTICING Agenda posting. Prepared by: Approved by: Raymond Wong Dawn S. Cameron Senior Project Manager Public Works Director Lisa Au Kimbra McCarthy Assistant Public Works Director City Manager RW-LA/EP/6/CAM 931-06-22-21CR-1 200460 cc: CSD, APWDArango, SMADoan, F/c (21-54) 6.3 MEMORANDUM DATE: December 1, 2021 TO: Council Sustainability Committee FROM: Lauren Anderson, Sustainability Analyst II Steve Attinger, Sustainability Coordinator VIA: Audrey Seymour Ramberg, Assistant City Manager/Chief Operating Officer SUBJECT: Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update PURPOSE This memorandum presents a status update on Sustainability Action Plan 4 (SAP-4), including progress since the May 2021 update to City Council and a preview of significant upcoming items. RECOMMENDATION Provide input to staff based on this SAP-4 status update. BACKGROUND The City Council adopted an original Environmental Sustainability Action Plan (ESAP) in March 2009, for Fiscal Years 2008-09 through 2010- short- and long-term sustainability goals. In April 2012, Council adopted Environmental Sustainability Action Plan 2 (ESAP-2) for Fiscal Years 2011-12 through 2013-14. In 2015, Council adopted a communitywide Climate Protection Roadmap and Municipal (GHG) reduction targets through 2050. In September 2016, the Council adopted Environmental Sustainability Action Plan 3 (ESAP-3) for Fiscal Years 2016-17 through 2018-19. In October 2019, the City Council adopted Sustainability Action Plan 4 (SAP-4) as the for Fiscal Years 2019-20 Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update December 1, 2021 Page 2 of 8 through 2021-22. Among its 81 new actions and 79 already-approved actions, SAP-4 contains smaller projects that provide near-term GHG reductions and larger, longer-term infrastructure projects that will yield significant GHG reductions over time. SAP-4 actions are organized around 27 high-level goals in the transportation, energy, land use, zero waste, water, parks and ecosystems, and core sustainability sectors. In May 2021, staff updated the City Council on the status of SAP-4 implementation. During this update, Council approved the removal of five actions (because they were no longer needed or could be combined with other actions) and allocated the available balance within the Sustainability Fund to support several projects. (The Sustainability Fund was created when the City Council adopted SAP-4 in October 2019.) ANALYSIS Overview of SAP-4 Status As shown in Table 1, staff has made progress implementing many SAP-4 actions; 75% of actions are completed or in progress, while 25% of actions have not been started. Table 1: Progress of 76 New SAP-4 Actions STATUS NUMBER PERCENT Completed 15 20% In Progress/Ongoing 42 55% Not Started 19 25% Total New Actions 76 100% Although many actions have progressed as intended, others have been delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic and associated impacts. These impacts have included: Shelter-in- Place orders that temporarily restricted work on capital projects; emergence of new priorities to respond to community needs related to the pandemic; constraints on the availability and resources of stakeholders and potential partners as they focused on COVID-19 recovery; staff vacancies in existing positions and challenges in hiring new SAP-4 positions; and reduced capacity and resources as staff focused on maintaining City services in compliance with public health restrictions. Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update December 1, 2021 Page 3 of 8 Key Progress Since May 2021 Many SAP-4 projects have started, advanced significantly, or been completed since the update to the City Council in May 2021, as described below. Complete final 2018 community GHG inventory (S2.5) The final 2018 and preliminary 2019 community greenhouse gas inventories were presented to the City Council on June 22, 2021. Emissions declined between 2017 and 2018 and remained below 2005 baseline inventory levels. Final 2018 emissions were 604,318 MT COe, slightly lower than estimated in the preliminary 2018 inventory (610,226 MT COe), 22 due to lower emissions from energy, solid waste, and off-road mobile sources. Run the Cool Block program in Mountain View neighborhoods (S4.5) While COVID-19 prevented a full launch of the Cool Block program in early 2020, two groups were able to complete the program virtually in fall 2020. In October 2021, staff held three well-attended information sessions toward a second launch. Cool Block leader trainings occurred in November and will continue in December, and the program will officially relaunch in January 2022. Develop rebate program for e-bikes and other mobility devices (T3.6) Staff is finalizing the parameters of an electric bike incentive program and is evaluating options for program administration. Staff expects to launch the program in spring of 2022. Develop an Electric Vehicle Action Plan (T7.4) The Electric Vehicle Action Plan (EVAP) is substantially complete and will be finalized by the end of 2021. The EVAP is a high-level plan identifying strategies, policies, and programs to support electric vehicle adoption and infrastructure deployment. The actions outlined in this plan will be integrated into the next Sustainability Action Plan. Evaluate a trade-in or rebate program for landscaping equipment (P3.2) Staff has been working with Silicon Valley Clean Energy (SVCE) and other member agencies to evaluate the potential of implementing a regional incentive program for electric landscaping equipment. While several other agencies are interested in promoting electric landscaping equipment, none currently have the funding or staff capacity to Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update December 1, 2021 Page 4 of 8 implement an incentive program. SVCE has agreed to implement a pilot program in Mountain View, with the hope of expanding it to other cities in the future. Staff plans to launch the incentive program by spring 2022. Develop a sustainability dashboard for the City's website (S3.3) Staff has identified a platform that offers the features needed to deploy a sustainability dashboard on and is evaluating its usability and other details. Table 2 shows a preliminary list of metrics proposed by staff to display on the dashboard. These metrics may change slightly before the dashboard is completed. Depending on the complexity of displaying the metrics, staff may roll them out in a phased approach. Staff will gather the data starting in early 2022 and seek community feedback before launching the dashboard City-wide, and hopes to release a first version by spring/summer of 2022. Table 2: Proposed Metrics for the Sustainability Dashboard DIVISION CATEGORY PROPOSED METRIC Building Electric Vehicles Number of permits issued for private EV chargers Energy Number of solar PV permits issued communitywide Number of conversions to electric heat pump water heaters Number of new single-family homes with no natural gas Forestry and Tree Canopy Link to tree canopy interactive website Parks Planning Housing Current Regional Housing Needs Allocation (RHNA) requirements Yearly residential building permits issued based on affordability levels Yearly number of Below Market-Rate (BMR) (City subsidized projects) approved Solid Waste Zero Waste Total annual landfilled tonnage Per capita landfilled tonnage (based on service population) Diversion rate Sustainability GHG Emissions Municipal (total and by sector) Communitywide (total, by sector, and per capita) Energy Electricity use (total and by sector, if available) Natural gas use (total and by sector, if available Solar power generated by municipal solar facilities Number of people participating in utility rebate programs (if available) Electric Vehicles Number of public EV chargers Number of electric vehicles registered in Mountain View Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update December 1, 2021 Page 5 of 8 DIVISION CATEGORY PROPOSED METRIC Transportation Vehicle Travel Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) Active and Weekday public transit ridership Public Weekday pedestrian and bike ridership at key cordon Transportation point(s) City of Mountain View commute-benefit participants Run YellowTin program to educate about home upgrades (S4.6) To provide residents with customized information about switching to electric appliances, installing solar energy, and selecting appropriate electric vehicles and bikes, staff plans to launch the online Electrify Mountain View platform by late 2021 or early 2022. Develop a resolution and outreach in support of a plant-based diet (S4.7) In summer 2021, staff launched an informational campaign that has featured several webinars promoting plant-based eating. Staff is currently designing a restaurant engagement program and is evaluating options to increase plant-based eating within City operations. Staff plans to present a program proposal to the City Council by March 2022. Community Services Department Update the Community Tree Master Plan (P2.2) Staff is reviewing the tree canopy and land cover data produced by certified arborists on contract with the City. Staff is also assessing current ordinances, guidelines, and standards; s; and drafting updates needed to address tree diversity, management, and goals. The public input portion of the Community Tree Master Plan (CTMP) update is on hold as staff considers how biodiversity influences and connects to various master plans, including the Community Tree Master Plan, active transportation plans, the Parks and Recreation Strategic Plan, and wildlife/Shoreline plans. Staff expects to complete the update by October 2022. Partner with Canopy to expand tree planting and outreach (P2.3) The City completed its first full year contract with Canopy in July 2021, through which 21 trees were planted over the course of three planting events. Canopy is a nonprofit organization focused on tree planting and stewardship, education, and advocacy. The City recently renewed the contract with Canopy and held a tree planting and tree care work day in Mountain View in November 2021. Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update December 1, 2021 Page 6 of 8 Expand use of electric landscaping equipment and test new models (P3.1) Staff recently purchased an additional $10,000 of electric landscaping equipment, including back-pack leaf blowers, for various Parks and Roadway crews to use. About 10% of the landscaping work undertaken by Parks and Roadway crews is completed using electric landscaping equipment. Going forward, staff will replace any broken gas- powered equipment with electric versions. No new gas-powered blowers or trimmers will be purchased. Conduct a communitywide irrigation audit (W1.3) Staff has finalized a contractor agreement for a communitywide irrigation audit project. The contractor began the audit in November 2021. Public Works Department Analyze opportunities for electrification during renovations (B4.1) Staff continues to investigate electrification opportunities for all planned City-owned facilities projects. As such, an electrification evaluation was conducted for City Hall, Center for the Performing Arts, and Fire Station No. 1. Based on this evaluation, staff determined that the HVAC system at Fire Station No. 1 should be converted to all- electric. This electrification work is anticipated to be completed by the end of January 2022. The new Rengstorff Aquatics Center will also be an all-electric facility, including the water heating for the pools. This project is scheduled to begin construction in early 2022. Create dedicated funding for active transportation outreach (T3.1) Various outreach events were cancelled due to COVID-19. A portion of the funding was used for COVID-19 active transportation outreach (such as Castro StrEATS and touchless pedestrian push buttons). Outreach activities are also planned or under way for bikeway implementation via the repaving of Middlefield Road, from Moffett Boulevard to North Whisman Road. Develop a bike rack request program (T3.5) The bike rack request program has been delayed due to staffing shortages; however, public input has been obtained via the Bicycle/Pedestrian Advisory Committee for a bike rack project funded by the Transportation Fund for Clean Air (TFCA) program. SAP-4 provided City matching funds to leverage the $70,000 TFCA grant. With this money, the Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update December 1, 2021 Page 7 of 8 City has installed 141 new bike racks on City-owned property and created a map with the locations of these bike racks. Adopt Vision Zero Policy and develop and implement Action Plan (T5.1) The City Council adopted a Vision Zero policy in December 2019. A contract for the development of a joint Vision Zero Action Plan and Local Road Safety Plan has been executed and work is under way. SAP-4 is providing City matching funds to leverage a $62,000 Caltrans grant for this work. Install additional EV chargers in downtown parking garages (T7.3) Projects to install electric vehicle chargers in the 135 Bryant Street and 850 California Street parking structures are under way. The following new chargers will be installed by early 2022: 135 Bryant Street Parking Structure: 10xLevel 2 chargers, as well as make-ready infrastructure to support future installation of an additional 15xLevel 2 chargers. 850 California Street Parking Structure: 24xLevel 2 chargers and 1xLevel 3 fast charger. Implement Food Ware Packaging Reduction Phase 1 measures from the Zero Waste Plan (Z1.2) Staff is implementing Phase 1 of the Food Ware Packaging Reduction measures from the These initiatives are designed to address the landfilled waste, litter and ocean pollution, and potential negative health impacts of single-use food ware. As part of this effort, staff developed a Food Ware Packaging Reduction Plan, participated in regional efforts to align and expand food-ware ordinances and share best practices, drafted a recommended Food Service Ware Ordinance, and received business and community input. The Food Service Ware Ordinance was considered by the City Council for a first reading at a public hearing on November 9, 2021, was approved by Council and will be presented for adoption on December 14. If adopted, these new regulations would take effect on January 1, 2023. This ordinance expands the current ban on polystyrene foam food service ware to other types of single-use plastics, and require that all nonreusable food service ware (plates, bowls, cups, containers, etc.) be compostable fiber and certified free of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) or made entirely of aluminum, which is recyclable. Additionally, the ordinance prohibits the use of straws, stirrers, toothpicks, and food picks made from, or packaged in, plastic. Sustainability Action Plan 4 Status Update December 1, 2021 Page 8 of 8 Other Phase 1 initiatives will begin early next year, including a technical assistance program for restaurants that want to voluntarily transition to reusable food service ware. City staff will also conduct outreach about AB 1276, a new State law that requires provision of accessory items such as straws, stirrers, and utensils only upon request by the consumer, beginning January 1, 2022. CONCLUSION SAP-by increasing resources to address climate change and other sustainability challenges. Since adoption, many actions have been completed, but others have been delayed or modified due to COVID-19 or staffing constraints. Since the sustainability landscape is constantly evolving, staff will continue to provide updates to the Council Sustainability Committee, as appropriate, so that it may assess the progress of initiatives and recommend modifications. Staff will present a final update on SAP-4 implementation to the City Council in fall 2022. Development of Sustainability Action Plan 5 will begin by summer 2022. LA-SA/2/MGR 620-12-01-21M-1 cc: CM, SALund, CDD, CSD, POSMYoungberg, FRMTrconic, PWD, APWD Skinner, TMLo, SWPM, SWABrewster, SCETseng, CCFrancis